> Struggle against the British

The Jewish Resistance Movement
תקציר

The violent operations and actions taken by the Jewish Yishuv against the British, in response to the on-going policy of the "White Paper," were entitled the Jewish Resistance Movement. The Jewish Resistance Movement included the Hagana, Palmach, Etzel and Lechi. The operations lasted from October 1945 (though the Jewish Resistance Movement officially existed from November) until July 1948.

The violent operations and actions taken by the Jewish Yishuv against the British, in response to the on-going policy of the "White Paper," were entitled the Jewish Resistance Movement.
The operations lasted from October 1945 (though the Jewish Resistance Movement officially existed from November) until July 1948. The political objectives of the Jewish Resistance Movement were meant to send a clear message to the British government regarding the Jewish Yishuv's intention of fighting for its survival and political future, as well as to attract the world's attention to the struggle and win the sympathy of the public opinion. The Jewish Resistance Movement coordinated between the military operations of the Hagana and those of the Etzel and Lechi against the British 'White Paper' policy.
The Jewish Resistance Movement HQ was comprised of the three organization leaders; Moshe Sneh, head of the Hagana national HQ, was the most senior one. A civil, political-public committee called the "X-Committee" oversaw the movement's operations and gave its approval. The nature of the struggle and its political implications caused a major dispute in the Jewish Yishuv. While the moderates stood for a simultaneous struggle and immigration and settlement goals, the activists demanded a continuous struggle aimed mainly at British military targets.
Most Palmach members identified with the activist approach, but were hesitant to cooperate with the Etzel and Lechi. The Palmach commanders were apprehensive about legitimizing the existence of the "Dissenters," who opposed the authority of elected political institutions in the Jewish Yishuv. The hesitation and dissatisfaction did not prevent the Palmach, under the command of Yigal Alon, from following the instructions of the political rank. The Palmach was the main organization that operated on behalf of the Hagana as part of the Jewish Resistance Movement.
Yitzhak Sadeh, who had previously served as the Palmach commander, was appointed as the acting Chief of Staff of the Hagana, and was in essence the commander of the Jewish Resistance. The general code given to the struggle was the "Yeffet Plan" (Yeffet = nickname of the British). The Palmach was the planner and initiator of operations, which it brought before the Resistance Movement for approval. Most operations were approved; due to the opposition of the "X-Committee" only a few were cancelled, such as: attacking British vehicles as they returned from searching for Palmach fighters, illegal immigrants and arms within the Collective Agricultural Settlements.
Some of the Palmach's operations during the period of the Jewish Resistance Movement focused on Illegal Immigration and Settlement, and others on strategic and police targets.
One of the biggest operations was "Night of the Bridges." In response to it, the British launched operation "Agatha" ("Black Sabbath") on June 29th, 1946. The operation was aimed at capturing Palmach fighters, imprisoning the senior command of the Hagana, and arresting the heads of the Jewish Agency and the National Committee. About 200 Palmach members were imprisoned during this operation, a fifth of the entire fighting unit that actually participated in the operations of the Jewish Resistance Movement. The list of Palmach members was retrieved by the British from the Palmach HQ at Kibbutz Mizrah, but they were unable to fully decipher it.
Under strong pressure by Chaim Weizmann, Chairman of the Zionist Organization (Histadrut), the "X-Committee" ordered the suspension of the Resistance Movement's operations. The Hagana accepted this verdict, unlike the Etzel and Lechi. On July 22, the Etzel bombed the King David Hotel, after which the Jewish Resistance Movement was dismantled.

נושאי משנה

The Palmach Operations within the Jewish Resistance Movement

Information Archive
The Beginning of the Palmach
Struggle against the British
The War of Independence
Dismantling of the Palmach
Palmach and the Settlements
The Palmach's Military Thinking
Units and Organizational Structure
Female Palmach Members
Culture and Folklore
Palmach Contribution and Legacy