The War of Independence of the Jewish population of Eretz Israel broke out on the morrow of the United Nations decision, 29.11.1948, owing to the opposition of the Arab population to partitioning the country into Jewish and Arab states.
The war was fought throughout the entire country. On the Central front most of the fighting was conducted in the Jerusalem area.
Fierce battles were fought for the conquest and liberation of Jerusalem (the battle for Sheikh Jarach, the conquest of Katamon, Augusta Victoria, the Kastel battle….) and also the fierce fighting on the Jerusalem road (the transport problem, the Burma Road breakthrough….).
The Nachshon operation on the 3-5 April 1948 was the turning point. The principal objective of the operation was breaking through and lifting the siege on Jerusalem.
The Palmach fighters fought relentlessly in order to defend the Gush Etzion settlements. A number of convoys with supplies and reinforcements were sent to the Gush Etzion settlers but only a few reached their destination. Other campaigns took place in the Latrun area: the Danny Campaign, the Bin-Nun Campaign and the Yoram Campaign.